Capital Gains Tax

Are you wondering how much capital gains tax you'll have to pay on a $100,000 investment? Understanding your tax obligations can be daunting, but it's essential to stay informed to avoid any surprises come tax season. In this article, we'll break down the complexities of capital gains tax and provide you with a clear understanding of what you can expect to pay.

What is capital gains tax?

Capital gains tax is a tax levied on the profits realized from the sale of certain assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or other investments. When you sell an asset for more than its original purchase price, you have a capital gain. This gain is subject to taxation by the government.

Capital gains tax is categorized into two types: short-term and long-term. Short-term capital gains tax is applied to assets held for less than a year, while long-term capital gains tax is applied to assets held for more than a year. The rates at which these taxes are applied vary depending on your income and the type of asset.

Understanding capital gains

To calculate capital gains tax, it's important to understand how gains are determined. The gain is calculated by subtracting the purchase price (also known as the cost basis) from the selling price of the asset. For example, if you bought a stock for $50,000 and sold it for $100,000, your gain would be $50,000.

It's worth noting that not all assets are subject to capital gains tax. Certain assets, such as your primary residence, may be excluded from taxation, subject to certain conditions. Additionally, if you sell an asset at a loss, you may be able to offset your capital gains with those losses, reducing your overall tax liability.

Capital gains tax rates

The rates at which capital gains are taxed vary depending on your income level and the type of asset sold. In general, capital gains tax rates are lower than ordinary income tax rates. For individuals in the lower income brackets, the tax rate on long-term capital gains maybe 0%. However, for high-income individuals, the maximum tax rate on long-term capital gains is 20%.

Short-term capital gains, on the other hand, are taxed at the same rate as ordinary income. This means that if you sell an asset you've held for less than a year, your gains will be taxed at the same rate as your regular income. It's important to consider the tax implications when deciding whether to hold onto an asset for a longer period to qualify for the lower long-term capital gains tax rates.

Factors that affect capital gains tax

Several factors can affect the amount of capital gains tax you'll pay on a $100,000 investment. One of the key factors is your tax bracket. As mentioned earlier, individuals in higher income brackets may face higher tax rates on their capital gains.

Another factor to consider is the length of time you held the asset. If you held the asset for more than a year, you may qualify for the lower long-term capital gains tax rates. However, if you held the asset for less than a year, you'll be subject to the higher short-term capital gains tax rates.

Additionally, the type of asset you're selling can also impact your capital gains tax liability. Different assets may be subject to different tax rates, so it's important to understand the tax implications specific to the type of investment you're making.

Calculating capital gains tax on $100,000

Now, let's calculate the capital gains tax on your $100,000 investment. To do this, we'll need to consider the factors mentioned earlier - the tax bracket, the length of time the asset was held, and the type of asset.

Let's assume you're in the 20% tax bracket for long-term capital gains and you've held the asset for more than a year. In this case, you would be subject to a 20% tax rate on your capital gains. If your gain on the $100,000 investment is $50,000, your capital gains tax would be $10,000 (20% of $50,000).

However, if you held the asset for less than a year and are subject to higher short-term capital gains tax rates, the tax calculation would be different. Let's assume you're in the 35% tax bracket for short-term capital gains. In this case, your capital gains tax on the same $50,000 gain would be $17,500 (35% of $50,000).

Strategies to minimize capital gains tax

While paying taxes is a necessary part of investing, there are strategies you can employ to minimize your capital gains tax liability. One such strategy is tax-loss harvesting, where you sell investments that have declined in value to offset your capital gains.

By strategically selling assets at a loss, you can reduce your overall tax liability. However, it's important to be aware of the wash-sale rule, which prohibits you from repurchasing the same or substantially identical asset within 30 days of selling it at a loss. This rule is in place to prevent investors from claiming artificial losses for tax purposes.

Another strategy is to contribute to tax-advantaged accounts, such as individual retirement accounts (IRAs) or 401(k) plans. By maxing out your contributions to these accounts, you can defer taxes on your investment gains until you withdraw the funds in retirement, potentially reducing your current tax liability.

Capital gains tax exemptions and deductions

As mentioned earlier, certain assets may be exempt from capital gains tax. One of the most common examples is the sale of your primary residence. If you meet certain criteria, you may be eligible for an exclusion of up to $250,000 (or $500,000 for married couples) of capital gains from the sale of your home.

Additionally, there are deductions available that can reduce your capital gains tax liability. For example, if you made improvements to an investment property before selling it, you may be able to deduct the cost of those improvements from your capital gains. It's important to consult with a tax professional to ensure you take advantage of any applicable exemptions and deductions.

Reporting and filing capital gains tax

When it comes to reporting and filing capital gains tax, it's crucial to stay organized and keep accurate records of your investments. You'll need to report your capital gains on your tax return, using Form 8949 and Schedule D.

If you received a Form 1099-B from your broker or financial institution, it will provide the necessary information to report your capital gains. However, if you didn't receive a Form 1099-B, you'll need to gather the relevant details, such as the purchase and sale dates, the cost basis, and the selling price, to accurately report your gains.

Seeking professional help for capital gains tax

Navigating the complexities of capital gains tax can be challenging, especially if you have significant investments or complicated financial situations. In such cases, it may be wise to seek the assistance of a tax professional or financial advisor who specializes in taxation.

A qualified professional can help you understand your specific tax obligations, identify strategies to minimize your tax liability and ensure you're in compliance with the tax laws. They can also provide guidance on reporting and filing your capital gains tax, helping you avoid any costly mistakes.


Understanding how much capital gains tax you'll pay on a $100,000 investment is crucial for making informed financial decisions. By considering factors such as your tax bracket, the length of time you held the asset, and the type of investment, you can accurately calculate your tax liability.

Remember, there are strategies available to minimize your capital gains tax, such as tax-loss harvesting and contributing to tax-advantaged accounts. Additionally, exemptions and deductions can further reduce your tax liability. However, it's important to consult with a tax professional to ensure you're taking advantage of all available options and staying compliant with the tax laws.

By staying informed and seeking professional help when needed, you can navigate the world of capital gains tax with confidence and maximize your returns. So, take the time to understand your tax obligations and make the most of your investments.

Capital gains tax (CGT) is a complex and often controversial topic in the field of taxation. It involves the taxation of the increase in value of assets such as shares, property, and businesses. While the theoretical foundation of an income tax system suggests that capital gains should be included in the tax base as they accrue, the practical implementation often involves taxing them only when the assets are sold. Australia follows this international norm, with certain concessions and exemptions.

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the intricacies of capital gains tax in Australia. We will explore the current taxation framework, discuss the conceptual issues surrounding the taxation of gains, and propose recommendations for potential improvements. Through extensive research and analysis, we aim to provide readers with a clear understanding of how capital gains tax operates in Australia.

Current Taxation of Capital Gains and Losses in Australia

In Australia, capital gains and losses are only realized for tax purposes when an asset is sold or "realized." Individuals enjoy a concessional tax treatment on long-term capital gains, which are gains on assets held for at least one year, or more than 12 months. Under this treatment, 50% of the long-term capital gains are excluded from income, resulting in an effective tax rate of 23.25%. Superannuation funds also benefit from a one-third exclusion on long-term gains, leading to a top-effective tax rate of 10%.

Companies, on the other hand, are subject to a 30% tax rate on net capital gains, without any exclusion. The Australian tax system integrates individual and corporate tax rates through an imputation credit system, which allows shareholders to claim a credit for the tax paid by the company on its profits distributed as dividends.

Capital Gains Exemptions

Certain capital gains are exempt from tax, including gains on principal residences and assets acquired before September 20, 1985, when the capital gains tax was first introduced in Australia. Rollovers are also permitted in specific circumstances, such as transfers due to death or as a result of a court-ordered divorce decree.

How Should Capital Gains be Taxed?

The appropriate taxation of capital gains depends on the underlying tax system. Under a pure Haig-Simons income tax, capital gains would be taxed as ordinary income as they accrue, similar to interest payments, to ensure logical consistency. However, if the tax base were an R-based consumption tax, capital gains and other forms of capital income would be exempt from taxation to maintain symmetry with the treatment of capital expenses.

While a consumption tax offers efficiency benefits by not penalizing future consumption, it is less progressive than an income tax, potentially burdening lower-income households. Conversely, an income tax, when combined with social assistance, can mitigate economic inequality. Australia's progressive income tax system, coupled with robust social safety nets, redistributes income and provides support to individuals in need.

The Rationale for Concessional Taxation of Capital Gains

Proponents of concessional taxation argue that capital gains should be treated differently from other forms of income due to several reasons. Firstly, capital gains often arise from investments in risky assets, and taxing them at the same rate as other income may discourage risk-taking, which is vital for economic growth. Secondly, capital gains are subject to inflation erosion, reducing the real value of the gain. Thirdly, gains on corporate shares and unit trusts have already been subjected to company-level tax, making individual-level taxation potentially inefficient due to double taxation concerns. Lastly, some argue that taxing capital gains may discourage saving, which is crucial for long-term economic stability.

However, critics contend that concessional taxation of capital gains is unfair and favors those who earn income in the form of capital gains over those who earn income in other ways, such as interest, rents, or royalties. They argue that it disproportionately benefits wealthy individuals, exacerbating income inequality. Additionally, concessional taxation may incentivize tax avoidance schemes, leading to both unfairness and inefficiency in the tax system.

The Impact of Taxing Gains Upon Realization

Taxing capital gains only upon realization creates unique challenges and distortions in the financial markets. The "lock-in effect" occurs when investors hold onto appreciated assets to avoid triggering the tax. This behavior can lead to market inefficiencies and hinder the allocation of capital. Furthermore, the deductibility of capital losses is generally limited to offsetting capital gains, preventing unlimited tax shelter opportunities. These limitations aim to strike a balance between allowing reasonable loss deductions and preventing abuse of the tax system.

Strategies for Minimizing Capital Gains Tax

While capital gains tax is an integral part of the Australian tax system, there are legal strategies individuals can employ to minimize their tax obligations. One common approach is to hold assets for more than 12 months to qualify for the 50% exclusion on long-term gains. This can significantly reduce the taxable portion of the gains. Another strategy involves utilizing available deductions for the cost of acquiring, managing, and selling investments. However, it is crucial to adhere to the rules and regulations surrounding these deductions to avoid potential penalties.

Exemptions and Rollovers in Capital Gains Tax

Certain exemptions and rollover provisions exist in the capital gains tax framework to accommodate specific situations. The exemption on gains from principal residences ensures that homeowners are not burdened with additional taxes when they sell their homes. Assets acquired before September 20, 1985, are also exempt from capital gains tax, allowing individuals to retain the gains accrued over a long period without taxation. Rollovers, such as those triggered by death, divorce, or corporate acquisitions, provide flexibility and prevent unnecessary tax burdens during major life events.

The Role of Capital Gains Tax in Investment Decision-Making

The taxation of capital gains has implications for investment decision-making. Concessional taxation may encourage individuals to invest in riskier assets, as the lower tax rates can offset some of the inherent risks. This can stimulate economic growth and innovation. However, critics argue that such preferential treatment may distort investment choices and lead to misallocation of resources. Striking the right balance between encouraging investment and maintaining fairness in the tax system is a critical consideration.

The Debate Over Capital Gains Tax in Australia

The taxation of capital gains is a contentious issue that has sparked debates among policymakers, economists, and taxpayers. The proponents of concessional taxation highlight the potential benefits to economic growth, risk-taking, and savings. Conversely, critics raise concerns about fairness, income inequality, tax avoidance, and potential distortions in investment decisions. Balancing these competing arguments is a significant challenge for policymakers as they strive to design a tax system that promotes economic prosperity while ensuring fairness and equity.

Capital gains tax is a complex and multifaceted aspect of the Australian tax system. While concessional taxation of capital gains has its rationales, it also faces criticism due to potential unfairness and tax avoidance concerns. Striking the right balance between encouraging risk-taking, promoting economic growth, and maintaining a fair and equitable tax system is an ongoing challenge. By understanding the current framework, conceptual issues, and potential areas for improvement, individuals and policymakers can navigate the complexities of capital gains tax and contribute to the ongoing discussion on tax reform in Australia.

How is capital gains tax calculated on sale of property in Australia?

In Australia, the capital gains tax (CGT) on the sale of property is calculated by determining the capital proceeds (the amount received from the sale) and subtracting the cost base (the initial cost of acquiring the property and any associated expenses). The net capital gain is then subject to taxation. If the property has been held for at least one year, individuals may be eligible for a 50% CGT discount. It's important to note that certain assets, such as the taxpayer's main residence, may be exempt from CGT.

What is the 6-year rule for capital gains tax exemptions?

The capital gains tax property six-year rule allows you to use your property investment as if it were your principal place of residence for up to six years whilst you rent it out.

What is the 12-month rule for capital gains tax?

In Australia, the 12-month rule for capital gains tax (CGT) refers to the requirement of owning an asset for at least 12 months before being eligible for a CGT discount. This discount can reduce the amount of CGT paid on the sale of an asset. To be eligible for the discount, you must also be an Australian resident for tax purposes. Certain assets may be excluded from the discount, such as those used for rental or business purposes within 12 months before disposal or newly created assets through a CGT event. It is important to note that the 12-month rule is just one of several conditions that must be met to qualify for the CGT discount.
Written by Chatsonic

Investing in real estate can be a lucrative venture, and one of the many advantages is the ability to take advantage of various tax deductions. Understanding the ins and outs of investment property tax deductions is essential, as it can help you maximize your returns and reduce your tax liability. In this article, we will delve into the basics of investment property taxation, explore common tax deductions for investment properties, discuss strategies to maximize your deductions, navigate tax laws specific to investment properties, and explain the importance of working with tax professionals in this regard. Additionally, we will touch on long-term tax planning and the impact of deductions on your property value.

Understanding Investment Property Tax Deductions

Basics of Investment Property Taxation

Before delving into specific deductions, it's crucial to understand the basics of investment property taxation. Rental income from your investment property is typically considered taxable. This income will be reported on your year-end taxes. The good news is that you can deduct certain expenses related to your investment property, lowering your overall taxable income.

When it comes to investment properties, the tax rules are complex and may vary depending on factors like property type, usage, and location. Familiarizing yourself with these rules will help ensure you take full advantage of the deductions available to you.

Investment property taxation is governed by a combination of federal, state, and local laws. It's important to consult with a qualified tax professional who can guide you through the intricacies of these laws and help you navigate the tax landscape effectively.

What are the Common Tax Deductions for Investment Properties?

When it comes to investment properties, there are several common tax deductions that property owners can claim. Taking advantage of these deductions can significantly impact your overall tax liability:

It's important to keep detailed records of all your expenses related to your investment property at all times. Always consult with a tax professional to ensure you are taking advantage of all the deductions available to you. By doing so, you can minimize your tax liability and maximize the return on your investment property.

Strategies to Maximize Tax Deductions

When it comes to maximizing tax deductions, property owners have several strategies at their disposal. By taking advantage of these deductions, you can potentially reduce your tax liability and keep more money in your pocket. Let's explore some of the key strategies that can help you maximize your tax deductions.

Rental Property Depreciation

Depreciation is a significant deduction for property owners, allowing you to deduct a portion of the property's value over time. This deduction recognizes the wear and tear that occurs on your investment property. The depreciation schedule will allow you to claim a total amount over time for rental expenses. IDeprecation schedules are created by specialists in the industry.

Consulting with a tax professional familiar with real estate investments can ensure you are maximizing this deduction. A tax advisor will navigate the complex rules and regulations surrounding depreciation. This way you are taking full advantage of this valuable tax benefit.

Interest Expense Deductions

Interest expense deductions can be a significant deduction for property owners with mortgages on their investment properties. If you have borrowed money to finance the purchase, likely 100% will be tax deductible.

Ensuring that you keep accurate records of your interest payments and properly report them on your tax return is crucial. By doing so, you can maximize your deduction and reduce your taxable income. Additionally, if you have taken out a home equity loan to finance improvements on your investment property, the interest on that loan may also be deductible.

Repair and Maintenance Deductions

What is Repairs and Maintenance on Rental Properties?

Repairs and maintenance expenses are generally deductible for investment properties. As a property owner, you understand the importance of keeping your rental property in good condition. The good news is that you can deduct the expenses incurred for repairs and maintenance.

It's important to differentiate between repairs and improvements. Improvements may need to be capitalized and depreciated over time, while repairs can be deducted in the current tax year. Keeping detailed records of expenses related to repairs and maintenance is essential for proper documentation.

By properly categorizing your expenses and keeping accurate records, you can ensure that you are maximizing your deductions and minimizing your tax liability. It's always a good idea to consult with a tax professional who specializes in real estate investments to ensure that you are taking advantage of all available deductions.

Navigating Tax Laws for Investment Properties

IRS Guidelines for Investment Properties

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) provides specific guidelines for reporting rental income and claiming deductions on investment properties. Familiarizing yourself with these guidelines is important to ensure compliance and accuracy in your tax reporting. The IRS website offers a wealth of resources and publications that will help you understand these guidelines better.

State-Specific Tax Laws

In addition to federal tax laws, each state may have its tax laws and regulations regarding investment properties. It's crucial to research and understand the tax laws specific to your state, as they may vary from federal laws. Consulting with a tax advisor will have knowledge in the investments of real estate will guide you with the different taxes payable.

Benefits of Hiring a Tax Advisor

When it comes to maximizing your investment property tax deductions, working with a qualified tax advisor can be invaluable. Tax advisors specialize in real estate taxation and can help you navigate the complexities of the tax code, ensuring that you take advantage of every available deduction while staying compliant with the law. They can also provide guidance on long-term tax planning strategies to minimize your tax liability.

Choosing the Right Tax Professional for Your Investment Property

When selecting a tax professional, it's essential to choose someone with expertise in real estate taxation. Additionally, consider their track record, client testimonials, and fees. Building a good relationship with a tax advisor can provide peace of mind, which creates massive tax deductions in the long run.

Planning for Future Tax Deductions

Long-Term Tax Planning Strategies

To maximize your investment property tax deductions, it's crucial to engage in long-term tax planning. This involves strategies such as considering the timing of expenses. Understanding the tax implications of property improvements, and exploring options for deferring income or accelerating deductions. Working with a tax professional can help you develop a tailored tax plan that aligns with your financial goals and minimizes your tax liability, even after the sale of the investment property.

Impact of Tax Deductions on Property Value

It's important to understand that tax deductions can have a positive impact on the overall value of your investment property. By reducing your tax liability, you can increase your cash flow and potentially reinvest the savings back into your property. Sound tax planning can enhance your property's attractiveness to potential buyers or investors.

In conclusion, maximizing your investment property tax deductions requires a solid understanding of the tax laws, careful recordkeeping, and strategic planning. By familiarizing yourself with the basics of investment property taxation, utilizing common deductions, and working with experienced tax professionals, you can optimize your tax benefits while complying with the law. Remember to stay updated on the latest tax regulations and consider the long-term implications of your deductions. With careful planning and execution, you can make the most of your investment property tax deductions and achieve financial success.

A Guide for Eligible Businesses

Small businesses have the opportunity to benefit from various tax concessions, which can be applicable to sole traders, partnerships, companies, or trusts.

Deciding whether your business qualifies as a 'CGT small business entity' for the income year is crucial.

Every, you should check your eligibility.

To meet the requirements for these concessions, the following criteria must be fulfilled:

  1. The business should run for all or part of the income year and have a turnover of less than $10 million.

Note that the $10 million turnover threshold doesn't apply to all tax concessions, as some specific concessions have different turnover thresholds.

It's important to note that only one Small Business CGT Concessions incentive can be applied to an asset.

In case multiple incentives are potentially applicable to an asset, the order of application is as follows (subject to opt-out choices):

Temporary Full Expensing:

Until 30 June 2023, eligible businesses with an aggregated turnover of less than $5 million can deduct the business part of the cost of eligible new depreciating assets.

For small to medium-sized businesses, temporary full expensing also extends to the business part of eligible second-hand depreciating assets.

Moreover, businesses can utilize temporary full expensing to cover the business portion of the cost of improvements made to eligible depreciating assets, even if they acquired those assets before 7.30 pm (AEDT) on 6 October 2020.

Instant Asset Write-Off:

An eligible business can claim an immediate deduction for the business part of the cost of an asset in the year it is first used, or installed for use.

Backing Business Investment:

The incentive offers the following key features:

If you're using the simplified depreciation rules for small businesses, you can claim 57.5% of the cost of the asset (for those assets that cost more than the instant asset write-off threshold) in the first year of adding the asset to the small business pool.

If you're not using the simplified depreciation rules for small businesses, you can claim a deduction of 50% of the cost or opening adjustable value of an eligible asset on installation. The existing depreciation rules apply to the remaining cost of the asset.

It's important to note that you cannot claim a backing business investment – accelerated depreciation deduction if your business is eligible for and utilizes temporary full expensing or instant asset write-off for the same asset.

General Depreciation Rules:

The general depreciation rules decide the allowable capital allowances based on the effective life of the asset.

You can generally choose between the prime cost method or the diminishing value method to calculate depreciation.

Even if your business doesn't qualify as a 'small business entity' for the Small Business CGT Concessions, you may still be eligible for certain other small business concessions.

These concessions are based on your aggregated turnover, which includes your annual turnover and the annual turnover of any connected business or affiliate.

If you're unsure about accessing these concessions or have any questions, we encourage you to initiate a conversation with us. We are here to help you.

Want to know more about ATO Small Business CGT tax Concessions

Capital Gains tax how it affects you?

How does the ATO Collect foreigners Capital Gains Tax?

Do I need a vendors Clearance Certificate?

These are some of the questions we will be answering in this tax blog.

Accountants need to be across a new foreign resident capital gains tax collection mechanism which came into effect on 1 July 2016.

It impacts upon purchasers of direct interests in property but is also relevant for purchasers of shares in non-listed property-rich companies and purchasers of units in unlisted property trusts.

This is not a new tax. It’s a collection mechanism for existing taxes levied on non-residents.  For many years, non-resident vendors have been liable for Australian capital gains tax on disposal of real property assets located in Australia. The difficulty has been in collecting the tax by assessment as the foreign vendor may not have lodged an Australian tax return. These new rules impose a withholding obligation on purchasers, and thus back up the longstanding liability of the non-resident vendors to Australian capital gains tax.

Property acquisitions

If you are a purchaser of property for more than $2 million, you must withhold unless the vendor gives you a clearance certificate or a variation certificate. It is not a defence to say that the vendor was actually an Australian resident. An exemption is available where the vendor is in financial distress as defined (e.g. administration).  Property is broadly defined and includes:

The practical advice for any Australian vendor of property is that they should apply online to the ATO to get a clearance certificate immediately when a sale of relevant property is contemplated. It should only take a few days to issue. The clearance certificate is not property specific. The ATO has stated that the clearance certificate will have effect for 12 months, although there is no express time limit in the law. If the vendor commonly sells properties, it would be sensible to apply online and simply renew every 12 months. If a corporate group sells properties out of different entities, each separate entity should apply, even if the group is consolidated for tax purposes.

The legislation prescribes that the clearance certificate should be valid for a period that covers the date of contract. It should also be valid at the date it is provided to the purchaser. There is no requirement for the clearance certificate to be valid at the time of settlement. This is potentially relevant for contracts for sale with extended settlement terms.

The withholding obligation is not limited to Australian resident purchasers. Non-residents of Australia who purchase relevant interests must also comply with the new rules. This aspect differs from other withholding obligations which are confined to either Australian residents or non-residents operating in Australia through a branch here (for example, contrast the dividend and interest withholding rules).

The withholding amount must be paid to the ATO on or before the day the purchaser becomes the owner of the property. This will generally mean it is payable on the settlement date or earlier. The ATO commissioner has said that, as an administrative practice, taxpayers will be granted a short period of grace. This might be useful where, for example, settlement occurs in a different jurisdiction and the time zone makes a same-day remission problematic.

Foreign vendors, who would otherwise be subject to withholding, may apply to the ATO for a notice of ‘variation’ on the grounds that the tax they expect to pay on the gain, if any, will ultimately amount to less than 10 per cent of the purchase price. The effect of the variation may be to reduce the withholding required to nil or some other amount. This might be the case, for example, where the property is being sold for a loss, the vendor has carried forward tax losses or rollover relief is available. Unlike the clearance certificate, the variation is property specific and may take up to a month to obtain. Therefore, it should be applied for as early in the sale process as possible. If successful, the vendor will receive a notice of variation from the ATO.

Acquisitions of shares or units in property-rich companies and trusts

Purchasers of shares or units might also have to withhold. An indirect interest requires a holding of 10 per cent or more in an entity such as a company or trust where the value of the entity’s assets principally comprise Australian property. These are referred to as “indirect Australian real property interests”. There is no need to withhold where the transaction occurs on an approved stock exchange.

Once again, the withholding regime applies even if the purchaser is a non-resident and can apply to interests in foreign companies and trusts which indirectly own Australian real property. One would expect that there may be similar compliance problems to those currently being experienced, where transactions are non-resident to non-resident, particularly in circumstances where there has been a sale of shares in a foreign, land-rich company.

The procedure in order to avoid withholding is different from direct property sales. There is a declaration mechanism that can be used by both Australian and foreign vendors. The clearance certificate is not relevant. There is no need to approach the ATO. The vendor should give the purchaser a declaration that either the vendor is an Australian resident or, in the case of a foreign resident, that the shares or units that the vendor holds do not amount to an indirect interest in property. The ATO has released a pro forma declaration which can be provided as a standalone document. It is also acceptable if the declaration is provided by way of a warranty clause in the contract for sale.

In each of these instances, the $2 million threshold which applies for direct property interest is not applicable.

The production of a declaration by the vendor automatically alleviates any requirement on the purchaser to withhold. However, it is possible to avoid withholding on the sale of an indirect interest test, where there are reasonable grounds to believe the vendor is an Australian resident. Given the stiff penalties which may be imposed by the ATO on a purchaser for failure to withhold, extreme caution should be used where the knowledge exception is sought to be relied on.

As is the case for direct property sales, a variation can be applied for by the vendor to reduce the withholding rate.


The withholding rules can also apply to options over property and options over shares or units in land-rich companies or trusts so there is withholding on any premium paid to acquire such options.

In the case of options, the $2 million threshold is not relevant. Withholding applies to option premiums of less than $2 million. But further to this, an options premium paid in respect of a property valued at less than $2 million would be potentially subject to withholding. This is an odd result given a direct purchase of the underlying property would not be subject to the new rules.

How to calculate the withholding amount

Technically, the withholding amount is calculated as 10 per cent of the so called ‘first element’ of the CGT Capital Gains Cost cost base. Generally, this will be the purchase price under the contract of sale.

Because the 10 per cent amount is based on a tax concept (i.e. cost base), it does not necessary equate to 10 per cent of the cash consideration. As such, it is somewhat misleading to use the label ‘withholding tax’.  For example, if a purely property for property exchange occurs, the purchaser may be required to pay 10 per cent of the market value to the ATO notwithstanding there is no cash payment as part of the sale transaction.

Another consequence of the referencing back to the cost base and fixing liability at settlement is that the timing of payments under the contract is irrelevant. A purchaser who is acquiring property will be liable to remit the full withholding amount on settlement to the ATO notwithstanding the contract sum may be payable by instalments over an extended period.

In the case of options, there is a double counting rule so that on exercise of an option to acquire a direct property or indirect property interest, any option premium previously paid is deducted from the purchase price in calculating the amount on which to apply to 10 per cent withholding.

Non-final withholding tax

This is a non-final withholding measure. The foreign vendor should file an Australian tax return disclosing any gain. The amount withheld by the purchaser is a tax credit against the amount otherwise payable by the vendor. Even if withholding is made where the vendor has no tax liability, the vendor should be entitled to a full refund on filing an Australian tax return.

Penalties and offences

If the purchaser fails to withhold, the ATO can potentially impose a penalty of the amount of tax which should have been withheld. Given that the rules only apply to properties to the value of over $2 million (in the case of direct property sales), this would be at a minimum $200,000.

If any of the penalty remains unpaid after it is due, the entity is liable to pay the general interest charge on the unpaid amount of the penalty.

Mark Friezer, partner, Clayton Utz

If you are a foreign investor in Australia and you need to to talk to us please use this link to book an appointment Contact us